She wrote President Ulysses S. Grant, asking for both physical protection and justice. “We had passably good roads, on which we could reach almost any part of the State, and the next week they were all gone – not simply broken up, but gone. Some of the material was burned, I know, but miles and miles of iron have actually disappeared, gone out of existence.”, The answers to many of Reconstruction’s questions hinged upon the concepts of citizenship and equality. In Panola County, Mississippi, between August 1870 and December 1872, twenty-four Klan-style murders occurred. National Archives and Records Administration. Chapter 15: Reconstruction American Yawp Chapter Summary In the decades leading up to the Civil War, the Southern states experienced extraordinary change that would define the region and its role in American history for decades, even centuries, to come. Black representatives repeatedly articulated this concern in state constitutional conventions early in the Reconstruction era. Her name can be seen at the top of this petition to extend suffrage to all regardless of sex, which was present to Congress on January 29, 1866. After Reconstruction, African Americans did not enter the political arena again in large numbers until well into the twentieth century. The American Civil War, the bloodiest in the nation’s history, resulted in approximately 750,000 deaths.1The war touched the life of nearly every American as military mobilization reached levels never seen before or since. Black churches provided space for conflict over gender roles, cultural values, practices, norms, and political engagement. Library of Congress. Resistance continued, and Reconstruction eventually collapsed. Meanwhile, Rutherford B. Hayes, a Republican, won a landslide victory in the Ohio gubernatorial election without mentioning Reconstruction, focusing instead on fighting corruption and alcohol abuse and promoting economic recovery. Recommended citation: Christopher Abernathy et al., “Reconstruction,” Nicole Turner, ed., in The American Yawp, eds. Library of Congress. American Yawp Chapter Summary. The Ku Klux Klan emerged in the late 1860s as the most infamous of these groups. After the war, he contacted his formerly enslaved laborer Jourdon Anderson, offering him a job opportunity. On May 1, 1865, African Americans in Charleston created the precursor to the modern Memorial Day by mourning the Union dead buried hastily on a race track turned prison.29 Like their white counterparts, the three hundred African American women who participated had been members of the local Patriotic Association, which aided freedpeople during the war. Groups like the Union League, militias, and fraternal organizations all used the regalia, ritual, and even hymns of churches to inform and shape their practice. They were met with brutality as police dispersed the crowd, and consequently the unemployment movement lost much of its steam. Read more from Chapter 15 of the American Yawp. Southern women celebrated the return of their brothers, husbands, and sons, but couples separated for many years struggled to adjust. This 1870 print celebrated the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment. How would these states be brought back into the Union? *The American Yawp is an evolving, collaborative text. To pay their troops and keep the economy alive, the Confederate Congress turned to printing paper money that quickly sank in value and led to rapid inflation. Module 15: Reconstruction Search for: Introduction to Reconstruction “Contrabands,” Cumberland Landing, Virginia, 1862, via Library of Congress. While it is difficult to differentiate Klan actions from those of similar groups, such as the White Line, the Knights of the White Camellia, and the White Brotherhood, the distinctions hardly matter. The Fourteenth Amendment developed concurrently with the Civil Rights Act to ensure its constitutionality. Start studying American YAWP chapter 9. Lincoln’s policy was lenient, conservative, and short-lived. Wikimedia. Initially proposed as a war aim, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation committed the United States to the abolition of slavery. Meanwhile, New Departure Democrats—who focused on business, economics, political corruption, and trade—gained strength by distancing themselves from pro-slavery Democrats and Copperheads. After the Civil War, much of the South lay in ruins. Above all, freedpeople wanted freedom to control their families.15. The future of the South was uncertain. Library of Congress. The factories and farms of the North successfully supplied Union troops, while the federal government, with some adjustments, found the means to pay for war. In certain locations with large populations of African Americans, such as South Carolina, freedpeople continued to hold some local offices for several years. African Americans served at every level of government during Reconstruction. Some of the material was burned, I know, but miles and miles of iron have actually disappeared, gone out of existence.”1 He might as well have been talking about the entire antebellum way of life. slavery). Radicalism had its limits, and the Republican Party’s commitment to economic stability eclipsed their interest in racial justice. Proponents of the Lost Cause tried to rewrite the history of the antebellum South to deemphasize the brutality of slavery. Charlotte Forten teaches freed children in South Carolina, 1864. The era witnessed perhaps the most open and widespread discussions of citizenship since the nation’s founding. The policy reversal came as quite a shock. Following this defeat, many suffragists like Stanton increasingly replaced the ideal of universal suffrage with arguments about the virtue that white women would bring to the polls. In 1876, Thompson was exposed for cross-dressing. Much of life in the antebellum South had been premised on slavery. Six weeks later, on July 9, 1868, the states ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, guaranteeing birthright citizenship and “equal protection of the laws. 1. Republicans and Democrats responded to economic uncertainty by retreating from Reconstruction. But white conservatives chafed at the influx of Black residents and the establishment of biracial politics. So when Johnson announced that the southern states had been restored, congressional Republicans refused to seat delegates from the newly reconstructed states. “I am no Statesman,” she disclaimed; “I am only a poor woman whose husband has been murdered for his devotion to his country. For a time, the federal government, its courts, and its troops, sought to put an end to the KKK and related groups. . General Reynolds describes lawlessness in Texas, 1868. Tensions between northerners and southerners over styles of worship and educational requirements strained these associations. In contrast to the slave South, northerners praised their region as a land of free labor, populated by farmers, merchants, and wage laborers. Celebrated May 19th 1870,”. His Reconstruction plan required provisional southern governments to void their ordinances of secession, repudiate their Confederate debts, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Hayes was inaugurated in March 1877. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Most African American officeholders, however, gained their freedom during the war. “It passes my comprehension to tell what became of our railroads,” one South Carolinian told a Northern reporter. African Americans, both enslaved and free, pressed the issue of emancipation and nurtured this transformation. : . Churches were often the largest building in town and served as community centers. People placed these ads until the turn of the twentieth century, demonstrating the enduring pursuit of family reunification. But I feel that I have claims upon my country. US History II (American Yawp) Reconstruction Search for: Video: Reconstruction and 1876 In this video, John Green teaches you about Reconstruction. Workers demanded higher wages to pay rents and buy necessities, while the business community groaned under their growing tax burden. Few were too young, and none too old, to make the attempt to learn.”16, Many churches served as schoolhouses and as a result became central to the freedom struggle. Thomas Kelly after James C. Beard, The 15th Amendment. At the federal level, Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce were chosen as U.S. senators from Mississippi. In many cases, Confederate officials dispensed with taxes paid in cash and simply impressed the food and materials needed from their citizens. Liberated from white-controlled churches, Black Americans remade their religious worlds according to their own social and spiritual desires.17. “We had passably good roads, on which we could reach almost any part of the State, and the next week they were all gone – not simply broken up, but gone. His success made him a potential presidential candidate. The first document includes Frances Thompson and Lucy Smith’s testimony about their assault, rape, and robbery in 1866. For many, the ability to finally read the Bible for themselves induced work-weary men and women to spend all evening or Sunday attending night school or Sunday school classes. Would they be conquered territories or equal states? In this Harper’s Weekly print, The Freedmen’s Bureau official protecting the Black men and women from the angry and riotous mob of white Americans stood as a representation of the entire Bureau. The acts also deemed violent Klan behavior as acts of rebellion against the United States and allowed for the use of U.S. troops to protect freedpeople. In 1875, the Supreme Court addressed this constitutional argument: acknowledging women’s citizenship but arguing that suffrage was not a right guaranteed to all citizens. Black delegates actively participated in revising state constitutions. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. After the Civil War, much of the South lay in ruins. Resistance continued, and Reconstruction eventually collapsed. Southern prosperity relied on over four million enslaved African American to grow cotton, along with a number of other staple crops across the region. The United States, however, never embarked on a policy of impressment for food and supplies. For instance, some LMAs celebrated the anniversary of Stonewall Jackson’s death on May 10.27 Through these activities, southern women took on political roles in the South. Play games, take quizzes, print and more with Easy Notecards. . New tariff laws sheltered northern industry from European competition. The most notable were the riots in Memphis and New Orleans in 1866, but other large-scale urban conflicts erupted in places including Laurens, South Carolina, in 1870; Colfax, Louisiana, in 1873; another in New Orleans in 1874; Yazoo City, Mississippi, in 1875; and Hamburg, South Carolina, in 1876. In working to ensure that crops would be harvested, agents sometimes coerced formerly enslaved people into signing contracts with their former enslavers. Conflicts over emancipation and civil rights quickly gave way to long political conflict over the direction of American economic development. Would they be conquered territories or equal states? Moving into political office was a natural continuation of the leadership roles they had held in their former communities. White lawmakers forbade Black men from serving on juries or in state militias, refused to recognize Black testimony against white people, apprenticed orphaned children to their former enslaver, and established severe vagrancy laws. Pardoned Rebels murdered him. Among them were skilled craftsmen like Emanuel Fortune, a shoemaker from Florida; ministers such as James D. Lynch from Mississippi; and teachers like William V. Turner from Alabama. After the divisive, destructive Civil War, Abraham Lincoln had a plan to : . But the war did prove beneficial to wealthy northern farmers who could afford new technologies. Ch-15.pdf - The American Yawp Chapter 15 \u2013 Reconstruction Quiz 1 When did Reconstruction begin a Before the war ended b With Lee\u2019s surrender at The American Yawp Chapter 15 – Reconstruction Quiz 1. “We had passably good roads, on which we could reach almost any part of the State, and the next week they were all gone – not simply broken up, but gone. After 10% of voters took the oath, loyal unionists could establish governments. 6. Southern, rural Black churches preferred worship services with more emphasis on inspired preaching, while Black urban northerners favored more orderly worship and an educated ministry. But the aftermath of the war left portions of the Confederacy in ruins. https://getlibraryhelp.highlands.edu/c.php?g=677685, Charlotte Forten teaches freed children in South Carolina, 1864, Jourdon Anderson writes his former master, 1865, General Reynolds describes lawlessness in Texas, 1868, Frederick Douglass on remembering the Civil War, 1877, Thomas Kelly after James C. Beard, “The 15th Amendment. In 1859 and 1860, wealthy southern planters were flush after producing record cotton crops. Library of Congress. This table shows the military districts of the seceded states of the South, the date the state was readmitted into the Union, and the date when conservatives recaptured the state house. The stage was set for an election that would end Reconstruction as a national issue. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the great women’s rights and abolition activist, was one of the strongest forces in the universal suffrage movement. Another aspect of the pursuit of freedom was the reconstitution of families. “Contrabands,” Cumberland Landing, Virginia, 1862. The student will be able to identify decisive events of the Civil War & explain the regional & national consequences of Reconstruction. On the other hand, the Democratic candidate, Horatio Seymour, promised to repeal Reconstruction. Many southern governments enacted legislation that reestablished antebellum power relationships. On the eve of war, the American South enjoyed more per capita wealth than any other slave economy in the New World. Attempts to restore the antebellum economic order largely succeeded. Describe the connection between the emergence of women’s rights movements and the Constitutional Revolution in the 1860s and 1870s. What rights did freedom confer upon formerly enslaved people? After the Civil War, much of the South lay in ruins. In the South, limits on human freedom endured and would stand for nearly a century more. Petition of E. Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, and Others Asking for an Amendment of the Constitution that Shall Prohibit the Several States from Disfranchising Any of Their Citizens on the Ground of Sex, 1865. This ruling not only defeated the New Departure but also coincided with the Court’s broader reactionary interpretation of the Reconstruction amendments that significantly limited freedmen’s rights. When black Americans and their radical allies succeeded in securing citizenship for freedpeople, a new fight commenced to determine the legal, political, and social implications of American citizenship. All southern women faced economic devastation, lasting wartime trauma, and enduring racial tensions. [Richmond, Va. Crippled locomotive, Richmond & Petersburg Railroad depot], c. 1865. This was not to say that Republican policy worked for everyone. By 1860, northerners could buy clothing made in a New England factory, or light their homes with kerosene oil from Pennsylvania. WHAT: Regulated black behavior and imposed social and economic control. Charlotte Forten was born into a wealthy Black family in Philadelphia. Along with the textile mills, shoe factories, and iron foundries, the firms that produced McCormick’s wheat harvesters and Colt’s firearms displayed the technical advances of northern manufacturers. Many southern governments enacted legislation that reestablished antebellum power relationships. After the Civil War, much of the South lay in ruins. Celebrations honored the bravery of both armies, and the meaning of the war faded. After his famous March to the Sea in January of 1865, General William T. Sherman and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton met with twenty of Savannah’s African American religious leaders to discuss the future of the freedmen of the state of Georgia. Wartime labor shortages promoted the use of mechanical reapers, reducing demand for labor, boosting farm yields, and sowing the seeds of inequality. Racial violence in the Reconstruction period took three major forms: riots against Black political authority, interpersonal fights, and organized vigilante groups. As Booker T. Washington famously described the situation, “it was a whole race trying to go to school. Freedpeople’s hopes of land reform were unceremoniously dashed as Freedmen’s Bureau agents held meetings with the freedmen throughout the South, telling them the promise of land was not going to be honored and that instead they should plan to go back to work for their former enslaver as wage laborers. The Civil War destroyed and then transformed the American economy. By 1871, Redeemers won political control and ended Reconstruction in three important states: Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia. After his famous March to the Sea in January of 1865, General William T. Sherman and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton met with twenty of Savannah’s African American religious leaders to discuss the future of the freedmen of the state of Georgia. An extensive network of banks and financial markets helped aggregate capital that could be reinvested into further growth. By 1875, Democrats in Mississippi hatched the Mississippi Plan, a wave of violence designed to intimidate Black activists and suppress Black voters.39 The state’s Republican governor pleaded for federal intervention, but national Republicans ignored the plea. Many did not like what they saw, especially given the possibility of racial equality. There is no law for the punishment of them who do deeds of this sort. Treated rapidly and with all possible care, Lincoln nevertheless succumbed to his wounds the following morning, leaving a somber pall over the North and especially among African Americans. The Depression of 1873 crushed the nation’s already suffering laboring class and destroyed whatever remaining idealism northerners had about Reconstruction. For white families, suicide and divorce became more acceptable, while the opposite occurred for Black families. But southern white men were almost never prosecuted for violence against Black victims. Nevertheless, the formation and preservation of African American households became a paramount goal for African American women. All such groups were part of a web of terror that spread throughout the South during Reconstruction. These divisions came to a head early in 1867, as the AERA organized a campaign in Kansas to determine the fate of Black and woman suffrage. When Missouri applied to enter the union as a slave state, making the slave to free state ratio unbalanced. You are ready to say they did and we will not argue the point with you. Republicans and Democrats responded to the economic declines by shifting attention from Reconstruction … The acts made it criminal to deprive African Americans of their civil rights. Reconstruction changed when John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln on April 14, 1865, during a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theater. Freedmen discuss post-emancipation life with General Sherman, 1865. In this speech, Douglass calls on Americans to remember the war for what it was—a struggle between an army fighting to protect slavery and a nation reluctantly transformed into a force for liberation. The AERA was split over whether Black male suffrage should take precedence over universal suffrage, given the political climate of the South. Planters broke up large farms into smaller plots tended by single families in exchange for a portion of the crop, a system called sharecropping. Similar ambiguous vagrancy laws throughout the South reasserted control over Black labor in what one scholar has called “slavery by another name.”7 Black codes effectively criminalized Black people’s leisure, limited their mobility, and locked many into exploitative farming contracts. Some of the material was burned, I know, but miles and miles of iron have actually disappeared, gone out of existence.”1 He might as well have been talking about the entire antebellum way of life. Reconstruction, in U.S. history, the period (1865–77) that followed the American Civil War and during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy and to solve the problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 states that had seceded at or before the outbreak of war. Reconstruction, the print seems to argue, will form a more perfect Union that upholds the ideals of the American Revolution, most importantly (as seen on a streaming banner near the top) that “All men are born free and equal. After majorUnion victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Abraham Lincoln issuedthe Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in whichhe outlined his Ten-Percent Plan. Since the entire South suffered from economic devastation, many families were impoverished and sank into debt. In the South, limits on human freedom endured and would stand for nearly a century more. “It passes my comprehension to tell what became of our railroads,” one South Carolinian told a northern reporter. Black Americans hoped that the end of the Civil War would create an entirely new world, while white southerners tried to restore the antebellum order as much as they could. He pardoned all southerners engaged in the rebellion with the exception of wealthy planters who possessed more than $20,000 in property.5 The southern aristocracy would have to appeal to Johnson for individual pardons. For twenty years she successfully passed as a woman. White men beat or shot Black men with relative impunity, and did so over minor squabbles, labor disputes, long-standing grudges, and crimes of passion. With the war coming to an end, the question of how to reunite the former Confederate states with the Union was a divisive one. Mississippi’s vagrant law required all freedmen to carry papers proving they had means of employment.6 If they had no proof, they could be arrested and fined. Democrats threatened to boycott Hayes’s inauguration. In this report, General J.J. Reynolds describes the lawlessness of Texas during Reconstruction. At the bottom, Johnson is trying to charm a Confederate Copperhead. The center illustration shows a Black soldier as Othello and President Andrew Johnson as Iago. The House Joint Resolution proposing the 13th amendment to the Constitution, January 31, 1865; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789-1999; General Records of the United States Government; Record Group 11; National Archives. Freedpeople placed a great emphasis on education for their children and themselves. General Benjamin Butler is at the bottom left, accepting the Confederate surrender of New Orleans in 1862. The process of reconstructing the Union began in 1863,two years before the Confederacy formally surrendered. After the Civil War, much of the South lay in ruins. These incidents sometimes were reported to local federal authorities like the army or the Freedmen’s Bureau, but more often than not such violence was unreported and unprosecuted.31. This print mocks Reconstruction by making several allusions to Shakespeare. The future of the South was uncertain. One of the more marked transformations that took place after emancipation was the proliferation of independent Black churches and church associations. Under these new terms, states would have to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, write new constitutions enfranchising African Americans, and abolish repressive “black codes” before rejoining the union. The war years forged a close relationship between government and the business elite, a relationship that sometimes resulted in corruption and catastrophe, as it did when markets crashed on Black Friday, September 24, 1869. Many free African Americans, particularly those in South Carolina, Virginia, and Louisiana, were wealthy and well educated, two facts that distinguished them from much of the white population both before and after the Civil War. The violence, according to many white conservatives, was fabricated, or not as bad as it was claimed, or an unavoidable consequence of the enfranchisement of African Americans. A notion of white supremacy and Black inferiority undergirded it all. The era of Reconstruction witnessed a few moments of true progress. To cement the abolition of slavery, Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment on January 31, 1865. P. B. S. Pinchback served as Louisiana’s governor for thirty-four days after the previous governor was suspended during impeachment proceedings and was the only African American state governor until Virginia elected L. Douglas Wilder in 1989. At first, the expansion of the currency and the rapid rise in government spending created an uptick in business in 1862–1863. Violence shattered the dream of biracial democracy. The foundation of southern society had been shaken, but southern whites used black codes and racial terrorism to reassert control over formerly enslaved people. Some worried that political support for freedmen would be undermined by the pursuit of women’s suffrage. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. At the state level, more than 1,000 African American men held offices in the South. How did they express their newfound freedom? Reconstruction ended when northerners abandoned the cause of the formerly enslaved and Democrats recaptured southern politics. During the Panic of 1873, workers began demanding that the federal government help alleviate the strain on Americans. Unfortunately, many of these freedoms would be short-lived as the United States retreated from Reconstruction. Similar conflicts raged across the South. The Civil War, like all wars, interrupted the rhythms of commercial life by destroying lives and property. The federal government responded to southern paramilitary tactics by passing the Enforcement Acts between 1870 and 1871. . Frederick Douglass on remembering the Civil War, 1877. Advocates for women’s suffrage were largely confined to the North, but southern women were experiencing social transformations as well. Others had helped enslaved people escape or taught them to read, like Georgia’s James D. Porter. Please click here to improve this chapter.*. While the fight for women’s rights stalled during the war, it sprung back to life as Anthony, Stanton, and others formed the American Equal Rights Association. They developed anti-racist politics and organizational skills through antislavery organizations turned church associations. After receiving an education in Salem, Massachusetts, Forten became the first Black American hired to teach white students. Relationship created a political backlash, especially upper-class women, especially upper-class women, life without their husbands ’...., formed their own club organizations freedmen discuss post-emancipation life with General Sherman, 1865 of new Orleans 1862. 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